This article describes difficulties in identifying action referents of the word deterrence. These difficulties pose a significant problem for developing and implementing security policies against adversaries' employment of weapons of mass destruction.
"Words and Actions: The Referent as a Problem in the Deterrence of Nuclear Weapons Employment,"
International Bulletin of Political Psychology: Vol. 5
, Article 5.
Available at: http://commons.erau.edu/ibpp/vol5/iss8/5