Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University


Unbalanced field length exists when ASDA and TODA are not equal. Airport authority may add less expensive substitutes to runway full-strength pavement in the form of stopways and/or clearways to basic TORA to increase operational takeoff weights. Here developed Takeoff Performance Tool is a physics-based total-energy model used to simulate FAR/CS 25 regulated airplane takeoffs. Any aircraft, runway, and environmental conditions can be simulated, while complying with the applicable regulations and maximizing performance takeoff weights. The mathematical model was translated into Matlab, Fortran 95/2003/2008, Basic, and MS Excel computer codes. All existing FAR/CS 25 takeoff regulations are implemented. Average forces are calculated for takeoff accelerate-go and accelerate-stop scenarios with all-engine-operating and one-engine-inoperative conditions. Special attention was paid to simulating increase in FLLTOW as the clearways and/or stopways are added in varying ratios. From the limited parametric study it appears that clearway-to-stopway ratio addition of 4:1 gives good overall performance increase while keeping decision/action speed constant. The critical clearway length exists for which both TORA and TODA are equally limiting. Corrections for effective runway slopes and wind were derived. The presented takeoff performance model provides a platform for more in-depth optimization studies and economic analysis of runway-airplane-engines synergy.