The research conducted developed a descriptive understanding of how the cognitive processes of risk assessment, problem solving, and decision making, as well as other supportive processes, are employed by pilots-in-command (PICs) during the experience of extended, extreme, in-flight emergencies. This understanding is then applied to similar dynamic, operational environments. The research also validated the applicability and efficacy of Robert Stake’s 1995 descriptive, instrumental, collective case study methodology as a tool for investigating such phenomenon and developing such an understanding. Specifically, the research details the necessary procedures for employing this methodology successfully, and provides example of those procedures, and their results, by way of a research example. The research also details how this developed knowledge can be applied to the practical problems associated with pilot cognition during extended, extreme in-flight emergencies specifically, to ultimately better equip pilots to successfully address such emergencies. The path forward in subsequent research is also detailed.