The distribution of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and its budget terms is estimated in simulated tropical cyclones (TCs) of various intensities. Each simulated TC is subject to environmental wind shear and oceanic coupling. Different storm intensities are achieved through different ocean profiles in the model initialization. For each oceanic profile, the atmospheric simulations are performed with and without TKE advection. In all simulations, the TKE is maximized at low levels (i.e., below 1 km) and ~0.5 km radially inward of the azimuthal-mean radius of maximum wind speed at 1-km height. As in a previous study, the axisymmetric TKE decreases with height in the eyewall, but more abruptly in simulations without TKE advection. The largest TKE budget terms are shear generation and dissipation, though variability in vertical turbulent transport and buoyancy production affect the change in the azimuthal-mean TKE distribution. The general relationships between the TKE budget terms are consistent across different radii, regardless of differences in storm intensity.

In terms of the asymmetric distribution in the eyewall, TKE is maximized in the front-right quadrant where the sea surface temperature (SST) is highest and is minimized in the rear-right quadrant where the SST is the lowest. In the category-5 simulation, the height of the TKE maximum varies significantly in the eyewall between quadrants and is between ~400 m in the rear-right quadrant and ~1000 m in the front-left quadrant. When TKE advection is included in the simulations, the maximum eyewall TKE values are downwind compared to the simulations without TKE advection.

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Submissions from 2022

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CAT1_NA_Day 1_P1, Joshua B. Wadler, David S. Nolan, Jun A. Zhang, Lynn K. Shay, Joseph B. Olson, and Joseph J. Cione

CAT1_NA_Day 1_P2, Joshua B. Wadler, David S. Nolan, Jun A. Zhang, Lynn K. Shay, Joseph B. Olson, and Joseph J. Cione

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CAT1_NA_Day 2_P1, Joshua B. Wadler, David S. Nolan, Jun A. Zhang, Lynn K. Shay, Joseph B. Olson, and Joseph J. Cione

CAT1_NA_Day 2_P2, Joshua B. Wadler, David S. Nolan, Jun A. Zhang, Lynn K. Shay, Joseph B. Olson, and Joseph J. Cione

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CAT1_NA_Day 3_P1, Joshua B. Wadler, David S. Nolan, Jun A. Zhang, Lynn K. Shay, Joseph B. Olson, and Joseph J. Cione

CAT1_NA_Day 3_P2, Joshua B. Wadler, David S. Nolan, Jun A. Zhang, Lynn K. Shay, Joseph B. Olson, and Joseph J. Cione

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CAT1_NA_Day 4_P1, Joshua B. Wadler, David S. Nolan, Jun A. Zhang, Lynn K. Shay, Joseph B. Olson, and Joseph J. Cione

CAT1_NA_Day 4_P2, Joshua B. Wadler, David S. Nolan, Jun A. Zhang, Lynn K. Shay, Joseph B. Olson, and Joseph J. Cione

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CAT1_NA_Day 5_P1, Joshua B. Wadler, David S. Nolan, Jun A. Zhang, Lynn K. Shay, Joseph B. Olson, and Joseph J. Cione

CAT1_NA_Day 5_P2, Joshua B. Wadler, David S. Nolan, Jun A. Zhang, Lynn K. Shay, Joseph B. Olson, and Joseph J. Cione

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CAT1_NA_Day 6_P1, Joshua B. Wadler, David S. Nolan, Jun A. Zhang, Lynn K. Shay, Joseph B. Olson, and Joseph J. Cione

CAT1_NA_Day 6_P2, Joshua B. Wadler, David S. Nolan, Jun A. Zhang, Lynn K. Shay, Joseph B. Olson, and Joseph J. Cione

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CAT1_WA_Day 1_P1, Joshua B. Wadler, David S. Nolan, Jun A. Zhang, Lynn K. Shay, Joseph B. Olson, and Joseph J. Cione

CAT1_WA_Day 1_P2, Joshua B. Wadler, David S. Nolan, Jun A. Zhang, Lynn K. Shay, Joseph B. Olson, and Joseph J. Cione

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CAT1_WA_Day 2_P1, Joshua B. Wadler, David S. Nolan, Jun A. Zhang, Lynn K. Shay, Joseph B. Olson, and Joseph J. Cione

CAT1_WA_Day 2_P2, Joshua B. Wadler, David S. Nolan, Jun A. Zhang, Lynn K. Shay, Joseph B. Olson, and Joseph J. Cione

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CAT1_WA_Day 3_P1, Joshua B. Wadler, David S. Nolan, Jun A. Zhang, Lynn K. Shay, Joseph B. Olson, and Joseph J. Cione

CAT1_WA_Day 3_P2, Joshua B. Wadler, David S. Nolan, Jun A. Zhang, Lynn K. Shay, Joseph B. Olson, and Joseph J. Cione

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CAT1_WA_Day 4_P1, Joshua B. Wadler, David S. Nolan, Jun A. Zhang, Lynn K. Shay, Joseph B. Olson, and Joseph J. Cione

CAT1_WA_Day 4_P2, Joshua B. Wadler, David S. Nolan, Jun A. Zhang, Lynn K. Shay, Joseph B. Olson, and Joseph J. Cione

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CAT1_WA_Day 5_P1, Joshua B. Wadler, David S. Nolan, Jun A. Zhang, Lynn K. Shay, Joseph B. Olson, and Joseph J. Cione

CAT1_WA_Day 5_P2, Joshua B. Wadler

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CAT1_WA_Day 6_P1, Joshua B. Wadler, David S. Nolan, Jun A. Zhang, Lynn K. Shay, Joseph B. Olson, and Joseph J. Cione

CAT1_WA_Day 6_P2, Joshua B. Wadler

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CAT5_NA_Day 1_P1, Joshua B. Wadler, David S. Nolan, Jun A. Zhang, Lynn K. Shay, Joseph B. Olson, and Joseph J. Cione

CAT5_NA_Day 1_P2, Joshua B. Wadler, David S. Nolan, Jun A. Zhang, Lynn K. Shay, Joseph B. Olson, and Joseph J. Cione

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CAT5_NA_Day 2_P1, Joshua B. Wadler, David S. Nolan, Jun A. Zhang, Lynn K. Shay, Joseph B. Olson, and Joseph J. Cione

CAT5_NA_Day 2_P2, Joshua B. Wadler, David S. Nolan, Jun A. Zhang, Lynn K. Shay, Joseph B. Olson, and Joseph J. Cione

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CAT5_NA_Day 3_P1, Joshua B. Wadler, David S. Nolan, Jun A. Zhang, Lynn K. Shay, Joseph B. Olson, and Joseph J. Cione

CAT5_NA_Day 3_P2, Joshua B. Wadler, David S. Nolan, Jun A. Zhang, Lynn K. Shay, Joseph B. Olson, and Joseph J. Cione

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CAT5_NA_Day 4_P1, Joshua B. Wadler, David S. Nolan, Jun A. Zhang, Lynn K. Shay, Joseph B. Olson, and Joseph J. Cione

CAT5_NA_Day 4_P2, Joshua B. Wadler, David S. Nolan, Jun A. Zhang, Lynn K. Shay, Joseph B. Olson, and Joseph J. Cione

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CAT5_NA_Day 5_P1, Joshua B. Wadler, David S. Nolan, Jun A. Zhang, Lynn K. Shay, Joseph B. Olson, and Joseph J. Cione

CAT5_NA_Day 5_P2, Joshua B. Wadler, David S. Nolan, Jun A. Zhang, Lynn K. Shay, Joseph B. Olson, and Joseph J. Cione

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CAT5_NA_Day 6_P1, Joshua B. Wadler, David S. Nolan, Jun A. Zhang, Lynn K. Shay, Joseph B. Olson, and Joseph J. Cione

CAT5_NA_Day 6_P2, Joshua B. Wadler, David S. Nolan, Jun A. Zhang, Lynn K. Shay, Joseph B. Olson, and Joseph J. Cione

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CAT5_WA_Day 1_P1, Joshua B. Wadler, David S. Nolan, Jun A. Zhang, Lynn K. Shay, Joseph B. Olson, and Joseph J. Cione

CAT5_WA_Day 1_P2, Joshua B. Wadler, David S. Nolan, Jun A. Zhang, Lynn K. Shay, Joseph B. Olson, and Joseph J. Cione

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CAT5_WA_Day 2_P1, Joshua B. Wadler, David S. Nolan, Jun A. Zhang, Lynn K. Shay, Joseph B. Olson, and Joseph J. Cione

CAT5_WA_Day 2_P2, Joshua B. Wadler, David S. Nolan, Jun A. Zhang, Lynn K. Shay, Joseph B. Olson, and Joseph J. Cione

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CAT5_WA_Day 3_P1, Joshua B. Wadler, David S. Nolan, Jun A. Zhang, Lynn K. Shay, Joseph B. Olson, and Joseph J. Cione

CAT5_WA_Day 3_P2, Joshua B. Wadler, David S. Nolan, Jun A. Zhang, Lynn K. Shay, Joseph B. Olson, and Joseph J. Cione

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CAT5_WA_Day 4_P1, Joshua B. Wadler, David S. Nolan, Jun A. Zhang, Lynn K. Shay, Joseph B. Olson, and Joseph J. Cione

CAT5_WA_Day 4_P2, Joshua B. Wadler, David S. Nolan, Jun A. Zhang, Lynn K. Shay, Joseph B. Olson, and Joseph J. Cione

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CAT5_WA_Day 5_P1, Joshua B. Wadler, David S. Nolan, Jun A. Zhang, Lynn K. Shay, Joseph B. Olson, and Joseph J. Cione

CAT5_WA_Day 5_P2, Joshua B. Wadler, David S. Nolan, Jun A. Zhang, Lynn K. Shay, Joseph B. Olson, and Joseph J. Cione

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CAT5_WA_Day 6_P1, Joshua B. Wadler, David S. Nolan, Jun A. Zhang, Lynn K. Shay, Joseph B. Olson, and Joseph J. Cione

CAT5_WA_Day 6_P2, Joshua B. Wadler, David S. Nolan, Jun A. Zhang, Lynn K. Shay, Joseph B. Olson, and Joseph J. Cione