Date of Award


Document Type

Dissertation - Open Access

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Aerospace Engineering


Graduate Studies

Committee Chair

Dr. Anastasios Lyrintzis

First Committee Member

Dr. William Engblom

Second Committee Member

Dr. John Ekaterinaris

Third Committee Member

Dr. Reda Mankbadi


A detailed numerical analysis of fluidic injection as a tool to reduce noise emission is presented here. The noise reduction strategy, developed at the Pennsylvania State University, is based on injectors that blow air into the diverging section of the nozzle to emulate the effect of interior corrugation on the jet plume. The advantage is that the injection can be activated during takeoff and turned o_ during other phases of flight so that performance is not affected. Numerical simulations are performed on a military-style nozzle based on the GE F400-series engines, with a design Mach number of 1:65, for over-expanded jet conditions. The effectiveness of the fluidic injection as noise reduction technique is analyzed for heated and unheated jets. A high-order Large Eddy Simulation (LES) solver, developed originally at Purdue University, is used to analyze the flow-field and the acoustic field. New initial conditions and new boundary conditions are introduced. A set of Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations is used to set up the initial and boundary conditions for the LES runs. The numerical results are compared and validated with the outcome of experiments and RANS simulations performed at the Pennsylvania State University. The characteristics of unheated and heated jets are presented and compared. The higher temperatures do not modify the shock-cell structures, while they affect the jet development and the acoustic signature. The fluidic injection shows the potential of breaking down the shock-cells into smaller structures with lower strength, directly reducing the intensity of broadband shock associated noise. Moreover, the injectors are found to affect the development of the larger turbulent structures that generate the peak noise. For the cases tested the injectors reduce the peak noise by more than 1:5 dB for the unheated jet and by 3 dB for the heated jet, on the azimuthal plane in between two lines of injectors. The direction of maximum sound propagation moves from about 30_ to about 50_ as the jet gets heated. An analysis of the thrust changes due to activating the injectors is also presented for the heated and unheated jet conditions. The specific thrust is reduced by about 3% when the injectors are used.