These days, digital crime is one of the main challenges for law enforcement and the judicial system. Many of the laws which are used to protect the users of current technologies were derived from legislation and laws that are utilized in the control of crimes that are based in the physical realm. This applies not only in Western countries, but in countries that adopt Sharia law. There is a need to establish specific legislation and accepted best practice to deal with digital crimes that is compatible with Sharia law, which affects more than one billion Muslims. This paper presents a view of the approach to digital crime in Saudi Arabia under Sharia Law, demonstrating how this is founded on principles from the Qur'an and the Sunnah, which are the sayings and deeds of the Prophet Muhammad. We describe how Sharia law differs from Western law, and how evidence for digital forensics procedures can be obtained for use under Sharia law.


Abbas, N. H. (2009). Qur’an'search for a concept' tool and website (Doctoral dissertation, University of Leeds (School of Computing)), Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/7064/5274d24fb057ea499233fd66a57cd19dcf6c.pdf.

Abdel­Baky, M.F. (1951). Al­Mowatae of Imam El­Aema wa Alem El Madina, Malek Ibn Anas, El­Shaeb Book. Husn El Kholok, Hadith # 8, p. 564.

Alanazi, F. M. and Jonse (2017). A Method to Enhance the Accuracy of Digital Forensics in the Absence of Complete Evidence in Saudi Arabia

Al Beshri Mohammed. (2008). Habilitation investigators for computer crimes and Internet networks. Naif Arab University for Security Science. 1 (1), 33-34

Alfaifi, M.A. (2001). The Economic Crimes Adjudgments in the Computer. Al­Hakeem, Mohammad Bin Abdullah (1990). Almustadrak, Dar Alkutob Publish, 1990. (In Arabic).

Alfaize, NA. (2015). The Impact of Culture and Religion on Digital Forensics: The Study of the Role of Digital Evidence in the Legal Process in Saudi Arabia.

Al­Hakeem, Mohammad Bin Abdullah (1990). Almustadrak, Dar Alkutob Publish, 1990. (In Arabic).

Al Hwaimel, A. (2009). The application of the Sharia and its impact on the Nations. Riyadh: Dar Ibn Al Atheer. 1-48.

AlKarmi, A. (2005), The Wisdom Methods of Al Sharia Politics, Bit Alafkar, Libnon.

Al-Murjan, A., & Xynos, K. (2008, April). Network Forensic Investigation of Internal Misuse/Crime in Saudi Arabia: A Hacking Case. In Proceedings of the Conference on Digital Forensics, Security and Law (pp. 15-32).

Al-Zuhaili, W. (1994). Fiqh & Perundangan Islam. Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, Kementerian Pendidikan.

Ansary, A. (2015). A Brief Overview of the Saudi Arabian Legal System. New York: Hauser Global Law School Program, New York University School of Law.

Ariane. (2013). How to forgive those who have hurt you, even when it’s difficult. Retrieved from http://decodingeden.com/how-to-forgive-others-fault-even-when-its-difficult/.

Atalla, S. (2010). The fight against cybercrime in Saudi Arabia. Retrieved from King Saud University: http://faculty.ksu.edu.sa/shaimaaatalla/Pages/crifor.aspx.

Avison, D., Dwivedi, Y.K., Fitzgerald, G. and Powell, P., (2008) The beginnings of a new Era: Time to reflect on 17 years of the ISJ, Information Systems Journal, Vol. [18], No. 1, pp.5-21.

BCS. (2006), Presenting digital evidence to court. Retrieved from http://www.bcs.org/content/ConWebDoc/7372.

Bench-Capon, T. and Sartor, G., (2001) A model of legal reasoning with cases incorporating theories and values, Artificial Intelligence Journal, Vol. [150], Issue 1 – 2, pp.97-143.

Binothaimeen (2007), Library reading: Talk: Explain Session: Talk Third Session, Retrieved from http://www.ibnothaimeen.com/index.shtml.

Biomedical research ethics: An Islamic view, part I. International Journal of Surgery, (2006). Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1743919106000975

Brenner S et al, (2001) ,Cybercrime Investigation and Prosecution: The Role of Penal and Procedural Law, Murdoch University Electronic Journal of Law, Volume 8, Number 2

Brill AE, Pollitt M. (2006). The evolution of computer forensic best practices: an update on programs and publications. Journal of Digital Forensic Practice, 1:3–11.

CERT, Saudi Arabia, Make an Incident Response Plan, http://www.cert.gov.sa/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=200&Itemid=84

Carrier, B. D. (2006). A Hypothesis-based Approach to Digital Forensic Investigations.

CERIAS Tech Report 2006- 06, Purdue University, Center for Education and Research in Information Assurance and Security, West Lafayette.

Dafiri, S. (2003), In-Depth Studying of The Law on Criminal Procedure in Saudi Arabia, Dar Tibah, Riyadh.

Elguindy M, (2012), Cybercrime Challenges in Middle East. http://www.academia.edu/5022865/Cybercrime_Challenges_in_Middle_East.

Farid, Z. (2017). What is the hadith and sunnah?. [online] Quora. Available at: https://www.quora.com/What-is-the-hadith-and-sunnah [Accessed 6 Aug. 2018].

Fisher, M.P., 1997. Living Religions: An Encyclopaedia of the World's Faiths. IB Tauris.

Hadith Commentary. (2013). Hadith 32. No harming nor reciprocating harm. Available: https://hadithcommentary.wordpress.com/nawawi/hadith32/. Last accessed 22 NOV 2017.

Madkoar, M.S. (1980). The Effect of Islamic Legislation on Crime Prevention in Saudi Arabia. Ministry of Interior, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, (In Arabic).

Muhammad Farooq-i-Azam Malik (2001). Al-Qur'an, the Guidance for Mankind - English Translation of the Meanings of Al-Qur'an with Arabic. U.S: The Institute of Islamic Knowledge. 691-692.

Muhammad Saalih al-Munajjid. (2016). Is there a difference between the Hadeeth and the Sunnah. Retrieved from https://islamqa.info/ar/145520.

Imam Nawawi’s Forty Hadith: Hadith 32, 33, and 34: Do not harm, Burden of proof, Resisting evil. Retrieved from http://bible-Qur’an.com/islam-hadiths-hadiths-32-34-nawawi/.

Islamweb. (2009). Morality in Islam. Retrieved from


Perumal, S. (2009). Digital forensic model based on Malaysian investigation process. International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, 9(8), 38-44.

Qur’an. Translation to English Available at: http://quran.ksu.edu.sa/translations/english/

Stamatel and Sung, (2010), Crime and Punishment around the World, ABC-CLIO ISBN: 978-0313351334

Studies and Research Department. (2013), Claims of cybercrimes and evidence proof in the Arab legislations between reality and expectations. Retrieved from http://www.carjj.org/sites/default/files/%D8%AF%D8%B9%D8%A7%D9%88%D9%89%20%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AC%D8%B1%D8%A7%D8%A6%D9%85%20%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A5%D9%84%D9%83%D8%AA%D8%B1%D9%88%D9%86%D9%8A%D8%A9%20-%20%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B3%D8%B9%D9%88%D8%AF%D9%8A%D8%A9.docx

UK Government, Computer Misuse Act 1990, https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1990/18/contents

Wathakker.info. (2012). The Most Beautiful Names belong to Allah. Retrieved from http://en.islamway.net/article/12715/the-most-beautiful-names-belong-to-allah.

Wiechman, D.J., Kendall, J.D., & Azarian, M.K. (1994). Islamic Law Myths and Realities. University of Illinois.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.