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A review of three-dimensional waves on deep-water is presented. Three forms of three-dimensionality, namely oblique, forced and spontaneous types, are identified. An alternative formulation for these three-dimensional waves is given through cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The periodic solutions of the cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation are found using Weierstrass elliptic ℘ functions. It is shown that the classification of solutions depends on the boundary conditions, wavenumber and frequency. For certain parameters, Weierstrass ℘ functions are reduced to periodic, hyperbolic or Jacobi elliptic functions. It is demonstrated that some of these solutions do not have any physical significance. An analytical solution of cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation with wind forcing is also obtained which results in how groups of waves are generated on the surface of deep-water in the ocean. In this case, the dependency on the energy-transfer parameter, from wind to waves, makes either the groups of wave to grow initially and eventually dissipate, or simply decay or grow in time.

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Advances and Applications in Fluid Dynamics



Pushpa Publishing House