#### Start Date

4-1988 8:00 AM

#### Description

Dangerous pressure waves can be generated by the combustion of H2-air-steam mixtures if ordinary deflagrations accelerate to high speed or undergo deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT). The purpose of this paper is to estimate the potentially dangerous mixtures in large volumes. There is a limited experimental data base for flame acceleration and DDT of EL-airsteam mixtures in smaller geometries. There is concern about the possible explosive combustion in the Space Shuttle main engine exhaust duct at Vandenberg AFB. There are no relevant experimental data or valid theories at this large scale (duct width, W, ~ 10 m) to predict flame acceleration and DDT. We have estimated potentially dangerous mixtures by extrapolating correlations used at smaller scale based on the detonation cell width, X. In square ducts DDTs are possible if W/X > 1. We delineate three combustion regions: nonflammable, weakly flammable, and strongly flammable and potentially detonable. The nonflammable region is the region outside the flammability limit where self-sustaining combustion cannot occur. Flammability limits are independent of scale in large volumes. The strongly flammable region, where dangerous flame acceleration or DDT is possible, is bounded by mixtures with X = 10 m. We estimate detonations are possible when there is less than 45% steam. The weakly flammable region, which lies between the other two, should support only slow combustion, where no significant pressure waves should be generated.

Hydrogen-Air-Steam Combustion Regimes In Large Volumes

Dangerous pressure waves can be generated by the combustion of H2-air-steam mixtures if ordinary deflagrations accelerate to high speed or undergo deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT). The purpose of this paper is to estimate the potentially dangerous mixtures in large volumes. There is a limited experimental data base for flame acceleration and DDT of EL-airsteam mixtures in smaller geometries. There is concern about the possible explosive combustion in the Space Shuttle main engine exhaust duct at Vandenberg AFB. There are no relevant experimental data or valid theories at this large scale (duct width, W, ~ 10 m) to predict flame acceleration and DDT. We have estimated potentially dangerous mixtures by extrapolating correlations used at smaller scale based on the detonation cell width, X. In square ducts DDTs are possible if W/X > 1. We delineate three combustion regions: nonflammable, weakly flammable, and strongly flammable and potentially detonable. The nonflammable region is the region outside the flammability limit where self-sustaining combustion cannot occur. Flammability limits are independent of scale in large volumes. The strongly flammable region, where dangerous flame acceleration or DDT is possible, is bounded by mixtures with X = 10 m. We estimate detonations are possible when there is less than 45% steam. The weakly flammable region, which lies between the other two, should support only slow combustion, where no significant pressure waves should be generated.

## Comments

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