The Association of Digital Forensics, Security and Law (ADFSL)


Social networks in any form, specifically online social networks (OSNs), are becoming a part of our everyday life in this new millennium especially with the advanced and simple communication technologies through easily accessible devices such as smartphones and tablets. The data generated through the use of these technologies need to be analyzed for forensic purposes when criminal and terrorist activities are involved. In order to deal with the forensic implications of social networks, current research on both digital forensics and social networks need to be incorporated and understood. This will help digital forensics investigators to predict, detect and even prevent any criminal activities in different forms. It will also help researchers to develop new models / techniques in the future. This paper provides literature review of the social network forensics methods, models, and techniques in order to provide an overview to the researchers for their future works as well as the law enforcement investigators for their investigations when crimes are committed in the cyber space. It also provides awareness and defense methods for OSN users in order to protect them against to social attacks.


Algarni, A., Xu, Y., Chan, T., & Tian, Y.-C. (2013). Social engineering in social networking sites: Affect-based model. In Internet technology and secured transactions (icitst), 2013 8th international conference for (pp. 508-515).

Alowibdi, J. S., Buy, U., Yu, P. S., Stenneth, L., et al. (2014). Detecting deception in online social networks. In Advances in social networks analysis and mining (asonam), 2014 ieeejacm international conference on (pp. 383-390).

Alvisi, L., Clement, A., Epasto, A., Lattanzi, S., & Panconesi, A. (2013, May). Sok: The evolution of sybil defense via social networks. In 2013 ieee symposium on security and privacy (p. 382-396). doi: 10.1109 /SP .2013.33

American Housing Survey (AHS) - U.S. Census Bureau. (2013). https://www.census.gov/ programs-surveys/ahs/.

Archetti, C. (2015). Terrorism, communication and new media: explaining radicalization in the digital age. Perspectives on Terrorism, 9(1).

Asal, V., Rethemeyer, R. K., & Anderson, I. ( 2009). Big allied and dangerous (baad) database 1-lethality data, 1998-2005. Codebook. Project on Violent Conflict (PVC), University at Albany, State University of New York (h ttp:j /the data. harvard. edujdvnjdvjstartjfacesjstudyjStudy Page. xhtml.

Awan, F. A. (2015, Dec). Forensic examination of social networking Page 114 A Survey of Social Network Forensics applications on smartphones. In 2015 conference on information assurance and cyber security (ciacs) (p. 36-43). doi: 10.1109/CIACS.2015.7395564

Backstrom, L., Dwork, C., & Kleinberg, J. (2007). Wherefore art thou r3579x?: Anonymized social networks, hidden patterns, and structural steganography. In Proceedings of the 16th international conference on world wide web (pp. 181-190). New York, NY, USA: ACM. doi: 10.1145/1242572.1242598

Baden, R., Bender, A., Spring, N., Bhattacharjee, B., & Starin, D. (2009, August). Persona: An online social network with user-defined privacy. SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev., 39(4), 135-146. doi: 10.114511594977.1592585

Baker, W. E., & Faulkner, R. R. (2004). Social networks and loss of capital. Social Networks, 26(2), 91-111.

Bevc, C. (2010). Working on the edge: A study of multiorganizational networks in the spatiotemporal context of the world trade center attacks on september 11, 2001 (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Department of Sociology, University of Colorado, Boulder.

Bhaskaran, N., Nwogu, I., Frank, M. G., & Govindaraju, V. (2011). Lie to me: Deceit detection via online behavioral learning. In Automatic face €3 gesture recognition and workshops (fg 2011), 2011 ieee international conference on (pp. 24-29).

Bilge, L., Strufe, T., Balzarotti, D., & Kirda, E. ( 2009). All your contacts are belong to us: Automated identity theft attacks on social networks. In Proceedings of the 18th international conference on world wide web (pp. 551-560). New York, NY, USA: ACM. doi: 10.1145/1526709.1526784

Bjelopera, J. P. (2012). Organized crme: An evolving challenge for us law enforcement. DIANE Publishing.

Bora, N., Zaytsev, V., Chang, Y.-H., & Maheswaran, R. (2013). Gang networks, neighborhoods and holidays: Spatiotemporal patterns in social media. In Proceedings of the 2013 international conference on social computing (pp. 93-101). Washington, DC, USA: IEEE Computer Society. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ Socia1Com.2013.21 doi: 10.1109 /Socia1Com.2013.21

Breiger, R. 1., Schoon, E., Melamed, D., Asal, V., & Rethemeyer, R. K. (2014). Comparative configurational analysis as a two-mode network problem: A study of terrorist group engagement in the drug trade. Social Networks, 36, 23-39.

Brown, G., Howe, T., Ihbe, M., Prakash, A., & Borders, K. (2008). Social networks and context-aware spam. In Proceedings of the 2008 acm conference on computer supported cooperative work (pp. 403-412). New York, NY, USA: ACM. doi: 10.1145/1460563.1460628

Buller, D. B., & Burgoon, J. K. (1996). Interpersonal deception theory. Communication theory, 6(3), 203-242.

Burkholder, M., & Greenstadt, R. (2012). Privacy in online review sites. In Security and privacy workshops (spw), 2012 ieee symposium on (pp. 45-52).

Burnap, P., Williams, M. 1., Sloan, 1., Rana, 0., Housley, W., Edwards, A., ... Voss, A. (2014). Tweeting the terror: modelling the social media reaction to the woolwich terrorist attack. Social Network Analysis and Mining, 4 (1), 1-14.

Cahyani, N. D. W., Ab Rahman, N. H., Xu, Z., Glisson, W. B., & Choo, K.-K. R. (2016). The role of mobile forensics in terrorism investigations involving the use of cloud apps. In Proceedings of the 9th eai international conference on mobile multimedia communications (pp. 199-204). ICST, Brussels, Belgium, Belgium: ICST (Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering).

Cao, Q., Sirivianos, M., Yang, X., & Pregueiro, T. (2012). Aiding the detection of fake accounts in large scale social online services. In Proceedings of the 9th usenix conference on networked systems design and implementation (pp. 15-15). Berkeley, CA, USA: USENIX Association.

Chen, H., Atabakhsh, H., Petersen, T., Schroeder, J., Buetow, T., Chaboya, 1., ... others (2003). Coplink: Visualization for crime analysis. In Proceedings of the 2003 annual national conference on digital government research (pp. 1-6).

Chen, H., Chung, W., Xu, J. J., Wang, G., Qin, Y., & Chau, M. (2004). Crime data mining: a general framework and some examples. Computer, 37(4), 50-56.

Chester, S., & Srivastava, G. (2011, July). Social network privacy for attribute disclosure attacks. In Advances in social networks analysis and mining (asonam), 2011 international conference on (p. 445-449). doi: 10.1109/ ASONAM.2011.105

Chou, N., Ledesma, R., Teraguchi, Y., & Mitchell, J. C. (2004). Client-side defense against web-based identity theft ..

Chu, H., Yang, S.-W., Hsu, C.-H., & Park, J. H. (2014). Digital evidence discovery of networked multimedia smart devices based on social networking activities. Multimedia Tools and Applications, 71 (1), 219-234. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/ s11042-012-1349-9 doi: 10.1007 /s11042-012-1349-9

Chu, Z., Gianvecchio, S., Wang, H., & Jajodia, S. (2010). Who is tweeting on twitter: Human, bot, or cyborg? In Proceedings of the 26th annual computer security applications conference (pp. 21-30). New York, NY, USA: ACM. Retrieved from http: I /doi. acm. org/ 10. 1145/1920261.1920265 doi: 10.1145/1920261.1920265

Cowan, G. (1998). Statistical data analysis. Oxford University Press.

Csermely, P., London, A., Wu, L.-Y., & Uzzi, B. (2013). Structure and dynamics of core/periphery networks. Journal of Complex Networks, 1 (2), 93-123.

Dean, M. (2012, October). the story of amanda todd.". The New Yorker. Retrieved from http://www.newyorker.com/online/ blogs/culture/2012/10/ amandatodd-michael-brutsch-and -free-speechonline.html

Delle Fave, F. M., Jiang, A. X., Yin, Z., Zhang, C., Tambe, M., Kraus, S., & Sullivan, J. P. (2014). Game-theoretic patrolling with dynamic execution uncertainty and a case study on a real transit system. Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research, 50, 321-367.

DePaulo, B. M., Kashy, D. A., Kirkendol, S. E., Wyer, M. M., & Epstein, J. A. (1996). Lying in everyday life. Journal of personality and social psychology, 70(5), 979.

Dey, R., Tang, C., Ross, K., & Saxena, N. (2012, March). Estimating age privacy leakage in online social networks. In 2012 proceedings ieee infocom (p. 2836-2840). doi: 10.1109/INFCOM.2012.6195711

Didimo, W., Liotta, G., Montecchiani, F., & Palladino, P. (2011). An advanced network visualization system for financial crime detection. In Pacific visualization symposium (pacificvis), 2011 ieee (pp. 203-210).

Ding, X., Zhang, L., Wan, Z., & Gu, M. (2010, Sept). A brief survey on de-anonymization attacks in online social networks. In 2010 international conference on computational aspects of social networks (p. 611-615). doi: 10.1109/CASoN.2010.139

Dingli, A. (2012). Using social networks to solve crimes: A case study. International Journal of Virtual Communities and Social Networking (IJVCSN), 4 (2), 18-29.

Dong, W., Dave, V., Qiu, L., & Zhang, Y. (2011, April). Secure friend discovery in mobile social networks. In 2011 proceedings ieee infocom (p. 1647-1655). doi: 10.1109/INFCOM.2011.5934958

Douceur, J. R. (2002). The sybil attack. In Revised papers from the first international workshop on peer-to-peer systems (pp. 251-260). London, UK, UK: Springer-Verlag.

ENISA. (2007, November). security issues and recommendationsfor online social networks. Position Paper; https://www.enisa.europa.eu/publications/archive/securityissues- and-recommendations-for-onlinesocial- networks/at download/fullReport.

Farwell, J. P. (2014). The media strategy of isis. Survival, 56(6), 49-55.

Fire, M., Goldschmidt, R., & Elovici, Y. (2014, Fourthquarter). Online social networks: Threats and solutions. IEEE Communications Surveys Tutorials, 16(4), 2019-2036. doi: 10.1109/COMST.2014.2321628

Fire, M., Kagan, D., Elyashar, A., & Elovici, Y. (2014). Friend or foe? fake profile identification in online social networks. Social Network Analysis and Mining, 4 (1), 1-23.

Fitzgerald, N. ( 2009). new face book worm - don't click da button baby!". blog, Nov. 2009, [online] Available: http://fitzgerald.blog.avg.com/2009/11/newfacebook- worm-dont-click-da-button- baby.html.

Frank, 0. (2001). Statistical estimation of co-offending youth networks. Social Networks, 23(3), 203- 214. Retrieved from http: I /wWTil. sciencedirect. com/ science/article/pii/ 80378873301000405 doi: http:/ /dx.doi.org/10.1016/ S0378-8733(01 )00040-5

Gao, H., Hu, J., Huang, T., Wang, J., & Chen, Y. (2011, July). Security issues in online social networks. IEEE Internet Computing, 15( 4), 56-63. doi: 10.1109 /MIC.2011.50

Gardner, W. 1., & Martinko, M. J. (1988). Impression management in organizations. Journal of management, 14 (2), 321-338.

Garg, V., & Nilizadeh, S. (2013, May). Craigslist scams and community composition: Investigating online fraud victimization. In Security and privacy workshops (spw), 2013 ieee (p. 123-126). doi: 10.1109/SPW.2013.21

Goga, 0., Venkatadri, G., & Gummadi, K. P. (2015). The doppelganger bot attack: Exploring identity impersonation in online social networks. In Proceedings of the 2015 acm conference on internet measurement conference (pp. 141-153). New York, NY, USA: ACM. doi: 10.1145/2815675.2815699

Golle, P. (2006). Revisiting the uniqueness of simple demographics in the us population. In Proceedings of the 5th acm workshop on privacy in electronic society (pp. 77-80). New York, NY, USA: ACM. Retrieved from http://doi.acm. org/ 10. 1145/1179601. 1179615 doi: 10.1145/1179601.1179615

Greenacre, M. J. (1984). Theory and applications of correspondence analysis.

Griffin, C., & Squicciarini, A. (2012). Toward a game theoretic model of information release in social media with experimental results. In Security and privacy workshops (spw), 2012 ieee symposium on (pp. 113-116).

Gross, R., & Acquisti, A. (2005). Information revelation and privacy in online social networks. In Proceedings of the 2005 acm workshop on privacy in the electronic society (pp. 71-80). New York, NY, USA: ACM. Retrieved from http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/ 1102199. 1102214 doi: 10.1145/1102199.1102214

Guha, S., Tang, K., & Francis, P. (2008). Noyb: Privacy in online social networks. In Proceedings of the first workshop on online social networks (pp. 49-54). New York, NY, USA: ACM. doi: 10.1145/1397735.1397747

Guillory, J. E., & Hancock, J. T. (2016). 6 effects of network connections on deception and halo effects in linkedin. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SOCIAL NETWORKING, 66.

Heatherly, R., Kantarcioglu, M., & Thuraisingham, B. (2013). Preventing private information inference attacks on social networks. IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, 25(8), 1849-1862.

Heymann, P., Koutrika, G., & Garcia-Molina, H. (2007, Nov). Fighting spam on social web sites: A survey of approaches and future challenges. IEEE Internet Computing, 11 (6), 36-45. doi: 10.1109 /MIC.2007.125

Hipp, J. R. (2010). Micro-structure in micro-neighborhoods: a new social distance measure, and its effect on individual and aggregated perceptions of crime and disorder. Social Networks, 32(2), 148-159.

Hipp, J. R., Butts, C. T., Acton, R., Nagle, N. N., & Boessen, A. (2013). Extrapolative simulation of neighborhood networks based on population spatial distribution: Do they predict crime? Social Networks, 35( 4), 614-625.

Hu, H., Ahn, G. J., & Jorgensen, J. (2013, July). Multiparty access control for online social networks: Model and mechanisms. IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, 25(7), 1614-1627. doi: 10.1109/TKDE.2012.97

Huber, M., Mulazzani, M., Leithner, M., Schrittwieser, S., Wondracek, G., & Weippl, E. (2011). Social snapshots: Digital forensics for online social networks. In Proceedings of the 27th annual computer security applications conference (pp. 113-122). New York, NY, USA: ACM. Retrieved from http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/ 2076732. 20767 48 doi: 10.1145/2076732.20767 48

Huber, M., Mulazzani, M., Weippl, E., Kitzler, G., & Goluch, S. (2011, May). Friend-in-the-middle attacks: Exploiting social networking sites for spam. IEEE Internet Computing, 15(3), 28-34. doi: 10.1109 /MIC.2011.24

Huitsing, G., Veenstra, R., Sainio, M., & Salmivalli, C. (2012). it must be me or it could be them?: The impact of the social network position of bullies and victims on victims adjustment. Social Networks, 34 ( 4), 379 - 386. Retrieved from http: I I www.sciencedirect.com/science/ article/pii/S0378873310000377 doi: http:/ /dx.doi.org/10.1016/ j .socnet.2010.07.002

Husslage, B., Borm, P., Burg, T., Hamers, H., & Lindelauf, R. (2015). Ranking terrorists in networks: A sensitivity analysis of al qaeda's 9/11 attack. Social Networks, 42, 1-7.

Ipsos. (2012, January). one in ten {12world say their child has been cyberbullied, 24has experienced same in their community". The New Yorker. Retrieved from http: I /www. i psos-na. com/news -polls/pressrelease.aspx?id=5462

Irani, D., Balduzzi, M., Balzarotti, D., Kirda, E., & Pu, C. (2011). Reverse social engineering attacks in online social networks. InT. Holz & H. Bos (Eds.), Detection of intrusions and malware, and vulnerability assessment: 8th international conference; dimva 2011, amsterdam, the netherlands, july 7-8, 2011. proceedings (pp. 55-74). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Irani, D., Webb, S., Li, K., & Pu, C. (2011, May). Modeling unintended personal-information leakage from multiple online social networks. IEEE Internet Computing, 15(3), 13-19. doi: 10.1109 /MIC.2011.25

Jagatic, T. N., Johnson, N. A., Jakobsson, M., & Menczer, F. (2007, October). Social phishing. Commun. ACM, 50(10), 94-100. doi: 10.1145/1290958.1290968

Jiang, A. X., Jain, M., & Tambe, M. (2014). Computational game theory for security and sustainability. Journal of Information Processing, 22(2), 176-185.

Jin, 1., Takabi, H., & Joshi, J. B. (2011). Towards active detection of identity clone attacks on online social networks. In Proceedings of the first acm conference on data and application security and privacy (pp. 27-38). New York, NY, USA: ACM. doi: 10.1145/1943513.1943520

Joe, M. M., & Ramakrishnan, D. B. (2014). A survey of various security issues in online social networks. International Journal of Computer Networks and Applications, 1 (1), 11-14.

Johansson, F., Kaati, 1., & Shrestha, A. (2013). Detecting multiple aliases in social media. In Proceedings of the 2013 ieeejacm international conference on advances in social networks analysis and mining (pp. 1004-1011).

Jones, E. E., Gergen, K. J., & Davis, K. E. ( 1962). Some determinants of reactions to being approved or disapproved as a person. Psychological Monographs: General and Applied.

Justice.gov. (2017). Florida man arrested for illegal distribution of information relating to explosives. Retrieved from https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/ florida-man-arrested-illegal -distribution-information-relating -explosives ([Accessed: 2017-02-15])

Kang, C., & Goldman, A. (2016, December). in washington pizzeria attack, fake news brought real guns". The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2016/12/ 05/business/media/ comet-ping-pong-pizza-shooting -fake-news-consequences.html?_r=O

Kean, T. H., Hamilton, T., Ben-Veniste, B., et al. (2004). The 9/11 commission report: Final report of the national commission on terrorist attacks upon the united states, {2004). WW Norton & Company Ltd, NY.

King, G. (1989). Event count models for international relations: Generalizations and applications. International Studies Quarterly, 33(2), 123-147.

Krebs, B. (2013). Spy service exposes nigerian 'yahoo boys'. Retrieved from http://krebsonsecurity.com/2013/ 09/spy-service-exposes -nigerianyahoo-boys/

Krebs, V. (2002). Uncloaking terrorist networks. First Monday, 7( 4).

Krombholz, K., Robel, H., Huber, M., & Weippl, E. (2015). Advanced social engineering attacks. Journal of Information Security and applications, 22, 113-122.

Lee, K., Caverlee, J., & Webb, S. (2010). Uncovering social spammers. In Proceeding of the 33rd international acm sigir conference on research and development in information retrieval-sigir (p. 435).

Li, A., & Bagger, J. (2006). Using the bidr to distinguish the effects of impression management and self-deception on the criterion validity of personality measures: A meta-analysis. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 14 (2), 131-141.

Li, M., Zhu, H., Gao, Z., Chen, S., Yu, L., Hu, S., & Ren, K. (2014). All your location are belong to us: Breaking mobile social networks for automated user location tracking. In Proceedings of the 15th acm international symposium on mobile ad hoc networking and computing (pp. 43-52). New York, NY, USA: ACM. doi: 10.1145/2632951.2632953

Lindelauf, R. H., Hamers, H., & Husslage, B. (2011). Game theoretic centrality analysis of terrorist networks: the cases of jemaah islamiyah and al qaeda.

Luo, W., Xie, Q., & Hengartner, U. (2009, Aug). Facecloak: An architecture for user privacy on social networking sites. In 2009 international conference on computational science and engineering (Vol. 3, p. 26-33). doi: 10.1109/CSE.2009.387

Mazumder, A., Das, A., Kim, N., Gokalp, S., Sen, A., & Davulcu, H. (2013, Sept). Spatia-temporal signal recovery from political tweets in indonesia. In Social computing (socialcom), 2013 international conference on (p. 280-287). doi: 10.1109 /SocialCom.2013.46

McBride, M., & Caldara, M. (2013). The efficacy of tables versus graphs in disrupting dark networks: An experimental study. Social Networks, 35(3), 406-422.

Misener, D. (2011, March). rise of the socialbots: They could be influencing you online.". Web.

Moroney, J., Jones, T., & Palumbo, A. (2016, September). 2 found guilty in snapchat rape case sentenced. NECN. Retrieved from http: I /www. necn. com/ news/new-england/ Sentencing-for-2-Found-Guilty-in -Snapchat-Rape-Case-393665381.html

Morselli, C., Gigure, C., & Petit, K. (2007). The efficiency/ security trade-off in criminal networks. Social Networks, 29(1), 143-153. Retrieved from http:// www.sciencedirect.com/science/ article/pii/S0378873306000268 doi: http:/ /dx.doi.org/10.1016/ j .socnet.2006.05.001

Murphy, C. A. (2012). The role of perception in age estimation. In Digital forensics and cyber crime (pp. 1-16). Springer.

Mutawa, N. A., Baggili, 1., & Marrington, A. (2012). Forensic analysis of social networking applications on mobile devices. Digital Investigation, 9, Supplement, S24- S33. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/ science/article/pii/ 81742287612000321 (The Proceedings of the Twelfth Annual {DFRWS} Conference12th Annual Digital Forensics Research Conference) doi: http:// dx.doi.org/10.1016fj.diin.2012.05.007

Myers, S. A., Zhu, C., & Leskovec, J. (2012). Information diffusion and external influence in networks. In Proceedings of the 18th acm sigkdd international conference on knowledge discovery and data mining (pp. 33-41).

Narayanan, A., & Shmatikov, V. (2009, May). De-anonymizing social networks. In 2009 30th ieee symposium on security and privacy (p. 173-187). doi: 10.1109 /SP .2009.22

Nash, R., Bouchard, M., & Malm, A. (2013). Investing in people: The role of social networks in the diffusion of a large-scale fraud. Social Networks, 35(4), 686 - 698. Retrieved from http : I I www.sciencedirect.comlsciencel articlelpiiiS0378873313000567 doi: http:/ /dx.doi.org/10.1016/ j .socnet.2013.06.005

Nelson, B., Phillips, A., & Steuart, C. (2015). Guide to computer forensics and investigations. Cengage Learning.

Nilizadeh, S., Kapadia, A., & Ahn, Y.-Y. (2014). Community-enhanced de-anonymization of online social networks. In Proceedings of the 2014 acm sigsac conference on computer and communications security (pp. 537-548). New York, NY, USA: ACM. doi: 10.1145/2660267.2660324

N orouzizadeh Dezfouli, F., Dehghantanha, A., Eterovic-Soric, B., & Choo, K.-K. R. (2016). Investigating social networking applications on smartphones detecting facebook, twitter, linkedin and google+ artefacts on android and ios platforms. Australian journal of forensic sciences, 48(4), 469-488.

Orebaugh, A., & Allnutt, J. (2010). Data mining instant messaging communications to perform author identification for cybercrime investigations. In Digital forensics and cyber crime (pp. 99-110). Springer.

Orebaugh, A., Kinser, J., & Allnutt, J. (2014). Visualizing instant messaging author writeprints for forensic analysis. In Proceedings of the conference on digital forensics, security and law (p. 191).

Otte, E., & Rousseau, R. (2002). Social network analysis: a powerful strategy, also for the information sciences. Journal of information Science, 28(6), 441-453.

Ozgul, F., Atzenbeck, C., & Erdem, Z. (2011). How much similar are terrorists networks of istanbul? In Advances in social networks analysis and mining ( asonam), 2011 international conference on (pp. 468-472).

Ozgul, F., & Erdem, Z. (2012, Aug). Detecting criminal networks using social similarity. In Advances in social networks analysis and mining (asonam), 2012 ieeejacm international conference on (p. 581-585). doi: 10.1109/ ASONAM.2012.98

Ozgul, F., & Erdem, Z. (2013, Aug). Which crime features are important for criminal network members? In Advances in social networks analysis and mining (asonam), 2013 ieeejacm international conference on (p. 1058-1060).

Ozgul, F., Erdem, Z., Bowerman, C., & Atzenbeck, C. (2010, Aug). Comparison of feature-based criminal network detection models with k-core and n-clique. In Advances in social networks analysis and mining (asonam), 2010 international conference on (p. 400-401). doi: 10.1109/ ASONAM.2010.45

Page, L., Brin, S., Motwani, R., & Winograd, T. (1999). The pagerank citation ranking: bringing order to the web.\

Paradesi, S., Seneviratne, 0., & Kagal, L. (2012). Policy aware social miner. In Security and privacy workshops (spw), 2012 ieee symposium on (pp. 53-59).

Pearce, M. (2013, September). florida girl, 12, found dead after bullies said kill yourself". Los Angeles Times, Los Angeles, CA, USA. Retrieved from http://articles.latimes.com/2013/ sep/12/nation/la-nann-florida -cyberbullying-20130912

Peled, 0., Fire, M., Rokach, L., & Elovici, Y. (2013). Entity matching in online social networks. In Social computing {socialcom), 2013 international conference on (pp. 339-344).

Penna, L., Clark, A., & Mohay, G. (2010). A framework for improved adolescent and child safety in mmos. In Advances in social networks analysis and mining (asonam), 2010 international conference on (pp. 33-40).

Perlroth, N. (2013, January). chinese hackers infiltrate new york times computers". New York Times. Retrieved from https: I /WTilw. nytimes. com/2013/ 01/31/technology/ chinese-hackers-infiltrate-new -york-times-computers.html

Piraveenan, M., Uddin, S., & Chung, K. (2012, Aug). Measuring topological robustness of networks under sustained targeted attacks. In Advances in social networks analysis and mining (asonam), 2012 ieeejacm international conference on (p. 38-45). doi: 10.1109/ ASONAM.2012.17

Raghavan, S. (2013). Digital forensic research: current state of the art. CSI Transactions on ICT, 1 (1), 91-114.

Ragin, C. C., & Rihoux, B. (2009). Configurational comparative methods: Qualitative comparative analysis (qca) and related techniques. Sage.

RSA. (2011). Anatomy of an attack. RSA FraudAction Research Labs. Retrieved from http: I /blogs. rsa. com/ anatomy-of-an-attack/

Sageman, M. (2004). Understanding terror networks. University of Pennsylvania Press.

Sarvari, H., Abozinadah, E., Mbaziira, A., & Mccoy, D. ( 2014). Constructing and analyzing criminal networks. In Security and privacy workshops {spw), 2014 ieee (pp. 84-91).

Sayaf, R., Rule, J., & Clarke, D. (2013). Can users control their data in social software? an ethical analysis of control systems. In Security and privacy workshops (spw), 2013 ieee (pp. 1-4).

Schechter, S., Egelman, S., & Reeder, R. W. (2009). It's not what you know, but who you know: A social approach to last-resort authentication. In Proceedings of the sigchi conference on human factors in computing systems (pp. 1983-1992). New York, NY, USA: ACM. doi: 10.1145/1518701.1519003

Schwartz, M. (2013). Microsoft hacked: joins apple, facebook, twitter. Information Week. Retrieved from http: I I WWTil.informationweek.com/security/ Attackackslmicrosoft-hacked-joins -apple-facebook-twl240149323

Schweinberger, M., Petrescu-Prahova, M., & Vu, D. Q. (2014). Disaster response on september 11, 2001 through the lens of statistical network analysis. Social networks, 37, 42-55.

Seigfried-Spellar, K. (2013). Measuring the preference of image content for self-reported consumers of child pornography. In M. Rogers & K. Seigfried-Spellar (Eds.), Digital forensics and cyber crime (Vol. 114, p. 81-90). Springer Berlin Heidelberg. doi: 10.1007 /978-3-642-39891-9\_6

Seigfried-Spellar, K., Bertoline, G., & Rogers, M. (2012). In P. Gladyshev & M. Rogers (Eds.), Digital forensics and cyber crime (Vol. 88, p. 17-32). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Semenov, A., Nikolaev, A., & Veijalainen, J. (2013). Online activity traces around a boston bomber. In Advances in social networks analysis and mining {asonam), 2013 ieeejacm international conference on (pp. 1050-1053).

Shapiro, J. N. (2005). Organizing terror: hierarchy and networks in covert organizations. In annual meeting of the american political science association, washington, de.

Shapiro, S. S., & Wilk, M. B. (1965). An analysis of variance test for normality (complete samples). Biometrika, 52 ( 3-4), 591-611.

Short, M. B., D'ORSOGNA, M. R., Pasour, V. B., Tita, G. E., Brantingham, P. J., Bertozzi, A. 1., & Chayes, L. B. (2008). A statistical model of criminal behavior. Mathematical Models and Methods in Applied Sciences, 18(supp01), 1249-1267.

Sikdar, S., Kang, B., O'Donovan, J., Hollerer, T., & Adah, S. (2013). Understanding information credibility on twitter. In Social computing {socialcom), 2013 international conference on (pp. 19-24).

Singh, 1., Butkiewicz, M., Madhyastha, H. V., Krishnamurthy, S. V., & Addepalli, S. (2012). Enabling private conversations on twitter. In Proceedings of the 28th annual computer security applications conference (pp. 409-418).

Singh, K., Bhola, S., & Lee, W. (2009). xbook: Redesigning privacy control in social networking platforms. In Proceedings of the 18th conference on usenix security symposium (pp. 249-266). Berkeley, CA, USA: USENIX Association.

Singh, M., Bansal, D., & Sofat, S. (2016). Behavioral analysis and classification of spammers distributing pornographic content in social media. Social Network Analysis and Mining, 6(1), 41. Retrieved from http: I ldx. doi. orgl10 .1007 I s13278-016-0350-0 doi: 10.1007 /s13278-016-0350-0

SocialEngineer. ( n.d.). what is phishing paypal phishing examples.". Social-Engineer .or g. Retrieved from http:llwww.social-engineer.orgl wikilarchivesiPhishingl Phishing-PayPal.html

Spezzano, F., Subrahmanian, V., & Mannes, A. (2013). Stone: Shaping terrorist organizational network efficiency. In Proceedings of the 2013 ieeejacm international conference on advances in social networks analysis and mining (pp. 348-355).

Squicciarini, A., & Griffin, C. (2014). Why and how to deceive: game results with sociological evidence. Social Network Analysis and Mining, 4 (1), 1-13.

StatsDirect. (2017). Cox (proportional hazards) regression. http:llwww.statsdirect.comlhelpl survival_analysisl cox_regression. htm. ([Accessed: 2017-02-16])

Steven, B., Ewan, K., & Loper, E. (2009). Nltk: The natural language toolkit. OReilly Media Inc.

Subrahmanian, V., Mannes, A., Sliva, A., Shakarian, J., & Dickerson, J. P. (2012). Computational analysis of terrorist groups: Lashkar-e-taiba: Lashkar-e-taiba. Springer Science & Business Media.

Sundsoy, P. R., Bjelland, J., Canright, G., Engo-Monsen, K., & Ling, R. (2012). The activation of core social networks in the wake of the 22 july oslo bombing. In Advances in social networks analysis and mining (asonam), 2012 ieeejacm international conference on (pp. 586-590).

Sweeney, L. (2002, October). K-anonymity: A model for protecting privacy. Int. J. Uncertain. Fuzziness Knowl.-Based Syst., 10(5), 557-570. doi: 10.1142/S0218488502001648

Sweeney, L. (2000). uniqueness of simple demographics in the u.s. population (Tech. Rep.). Technical report, Carnegie Mellon University, Laboratory for International Data Privacy.

Tayebi, M., Ester, M., Glasser, U., & Brantingham, P. (2014, Aug). Crimetracer: Activity space based crime location prediction. In Advances in social networks analysis and mining (asonam), 2014 ieeejacm international conference on (p. 472-480). doi: 10.1109/ ASONAM.2014.6921628

Tayebi, M., & Glasser, U. (2012, Aug). Investigating organized crime groups: A social network analysis perspective. In Advances in social networks analysis and mining (asonam), 2012 ieeejacm international conference on (p. 565-572). doi: 10.1109/ ASONAM.2012.96

Tootoonchian, A., Saroiu, S., Ganjali, Y., & Wolman, A. (2009). Lockr: Better privacy for social networks. In Proceedings of the 5th international conference on emerging networking experiments and technologies (pp. 169-180). New York, NY, USA: ACM. doi: 10.1145/1658939.1658959

Thcker, D. (2008). Terrorism, networks, and strategy: Why the conventional wisdom is wrong. Homeland Security Affairs, 4 (2).

Thna, T., Akbas, E., Aksoy, A., Canbaz, M.A., Karabiyik, U., Gonen, B., & Aygun, R. (2016). User characterization for online social networks. Social Network Analysis and Mining, 6(1), 104. Retrieved from http: I I dx. do i . orgl 10.1007 ls13278-016-0412-3 doi: 10.1007 /s13278-016-0412-3

Thrnbull, B., & Randhawa, S. (2015). Automated event and social network extraction from digital evidence sources with ontological mapping. Digital Investigation, 13, 94-106.

Thrner, R. E., Edgley, C., & Olmstead, G. (1975). Information control in conversations: Honesty is not always the best policy. Kansas Journal of Sociology, 69-89.

Tuttle, M. (2016). Terrorism recruitment using internet marketing (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). UTICA COLLEGE.

Twitter. (2017). The Streaming APis. (https://dev.twitter.com/ streaming/ overview [Accessed: 2017-01-31])

UCINET. (2017). Caviar. Retrieved from https://sites.google.com/site/ ucinetsoftware/datasets/ covert-networks/ caviar ([Accessed: 2017-02-07])

UNICEF Office of Research, I. (2011, December). unicef child safety online: Global challenges and strategies. ". https:/ /www.unicefirc. org/publications/pdf/icLeng.pdf.

Utz, S. (2005). Types of



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.