Date of Award

Spring 2023

Access Type

Dissertation - Open Access

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Human Factors


Human Factors and Behavioral Neurobiology

Committee Chair

Barbara S. Chaparro

First Committee Member

Beth Atkinson

Second Committee Member

Elizabeth L. Blickensderfer

Third Committee Member

Joseph R. Keebler

College Dean

Peter Hoffmann


Use of augmented reality (AR) and mixed reality (MR) technologies for training is increasing, due in part to opportunities for increased immersion, safer training, and reduced costs. However, AR/MR training effectiveness and user experience, particularly for head-mounted displays (HMDs), is not well understood. The purpose of this study is to investigate user perceptions and retention of AR/MR training delivered through a HMD for a procedural task. This two-part study utilized a within-subjects experimental design with 30 participants to determine how instruction method (paper vs. AR vs. MR) and time of procedure recall (immediate vs. post-test vs. retention) influenced completion time, perceived task difficulty, perceived confidence in successfully completing the task, workload, user experience, and trainee reactions. Results indicate differences between instruction methods for user experience and preference, with significantly higher user experience ratings for MR and lower preference rankings for AR. Findings also show decreased performance, increased perceived task difficulty, and decreased confidence as time since training increased, with no significant differences in these measures between instruction methods. Completion times and workload were also found to be comparable between instruction methods. This work provides insight into objective and subjective differences between paper-, AR-, and MR-based training experiences, which can be used to determine which type of training is best suited for a particular use case. Recommendations for appropriately matching training modalities and scenarios, as well as for how to successfully design AR/MR training experiences, are discussed.