The purpose of this article is to provide aviation researchers who are interested in using Internet-based surveys with a justification and guide, along with best practices. A brief review of research methods, research design, and research methodologies precedes information on the types of research questions that can best be answered using survey research. The interaction of survey instruments and research design is discussed, such as using a survey instrument in an experimental design. Advantages and disadvantages of paper and electronic distribution are presented to help guide researchers into the best approach given their proposed goals. Guidance is also offered on how to gather participants, with a specific focus on using Internet-based samples, such as Amazon’s ® Mechanical Turk ® (MTurk). Basic demographic factors from these populations are highlighted, along with some useful techniques to help researchers have the most success using these platforms for data collection. These best practices are discussed to provide researchers with the necessary information to successfully use online populations to effectively complete their studies and answer their research questions.