The rules of thumb can be found in several flight instructions or pilot's handbooks. Thus far, available rules have been presented without proof or a valid range, such as altitude or velocity ranges wherein these rules can be applied. This paper presents the background theory for a few selected rules; then, the rule is compared with a first-order approximation of the background theory. A valid range is presented by analyzing the prediction accuracy of the rule, which is defined as the relative error of the rule to the background theory. These rules of thumb provide a good approximation of the background theory for various altitudes or velocities, although a few rules have not been adequately addressed to use with the valid range.




Special thanks to Dr. Akio Ichikawa for the initiation of this study.