The Association of Digital Forensics, Security and Law (ADFSL)
The E911 Initiative in the mid-1990s established an opportunity to obtain location specific digital evidence of subscriber activity from cellular carriers. Call Detail Records (CDR) containing Cell Site Location Information (CSLI) evidence production was made available from cellular carriers in response to the CALEA, 911 and ECPA acts. In the late 1990s, cellular carriers began to produce evidence for investigative and litigation purposes. CDR/CSLI evidence has become an important evidentiary focus in the courtroom. This research project resulted in the creation of a method of validating cellular carrier records accuracy and mitigating errors in forensic cell site analyst conclusions. The process establishes a scientific foundation critical to satisfying key Daubert requirements. The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) awarded a patent for this methodology.
5G PPP Architecture Working Group. (2016, July). View on 5G architecture, Version 1.0. Retrieved from https://5g-ppp.eu/wpcontent/ uploads/2014/02/5G-PPP-5GArchitecture- WP-July-2016.pdf
Ali, K.A.A. (2009) Directional cell breathing – A framework for congestion control and load balancing in broadband wireless networks. Retrieved on January 30, 2017, from http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/obj/th esescanada/vol2/OKQ/TC-OKQ-1813.pdf
Andleeb, M., & Ali, S.A. (2015). A study on the hourly behavior of key performance indicators of global system for mobile communications, Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences, 6(3). Retrieved from http://www.cisjournal.org/journalofcomput ing/archive/vol6no3/vol6no3_6.pdf
Atticus, Volume 26 Number 2 (2014, Summer), Privacy on the Line, New York State Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers, pp24-35. Retrieved from https://issuu.com/nysacdl/docs/atticuswcc
Ayers, R., Brothers, S., & Jansen, W. (2014). Guidelines on mobile device forensics. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Special Publication 800-101, Revision 1. Retrieved from http://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/SpecialP ublications/NIST.SP.800-101r1.pdf
Bahl, P. (V.), Hajiaghayi, M.T., Jain, K., Mirrokni, S.V., Qiu, L., & Saberi, A. (2007, February). Cell breathing in wireless LANs: Algorithms and evaluation. IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computingˆ, 6(2). Retrieved from https://www.cs.utexas.edu/~lili/papers/pu b/TMC2006.pdf
Blank, Aaron (2011) The Limitations and Admissibility of Using Historical Cellular Site Data to Track the Location of a Cellular Phone, XVIII RICH. J.L. & TECH. 3. Retrieved from http://jolt.richmond.edu/v18i1/article3.pdf.
Building Industry Consulting Service International (BICSI). (2015). Distributed antenna system (DAS) design and implementation best practices. American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/BICSI 006-2015. Retrieved on December 5, 2016, from http://www.bicsi.org/book_details.aspx?B ook=BICSI-006-CM-15-v5&d=0
European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). (2017). ETSI Conformance Testing Web page. Retrieved on March 2, 2017, from http://www.etsi.org/technologiesclusters/ technologies/testing
Federal Communications Commission (FCC). (n.d.). Universal licensing system Web site. Retrieved on December 5, 2016, from http://wireless.fcc.gov/uls/index.htm
Federal Communications Commission (FCC). (2001, January). Fact sheet: FCC wireless 911 requirements. Retrieved on January 25, 2017, from https://transition.fcc.gov/pshs/services/91 1- services/enhanced911/archives/factsheet_r equirements_012001.pdf
Federal Communications Commission (FCC). (2013, October 1). Cellular Geographic Service Area (CGSA). CFR 22.911. Retrieved from https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR- 2013-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title47- vol2-sec22-911.pdf
Federal Communications Commission (FCC). (2015, January 29). Wireless E911 location accuracy requirements. PS Docket No. 07- 114. Retrieved on December 5, 2016, from https://apps.fcc.gov/edocs_public/attach match/FCC-15-9A1.pdf
Federal Communications Commission (FCC). (2016, October 25). Understanding wireless telephone coverage areas. Retrieved on December 14, 2016, from https://www.fcc.gov/consumers/guides/understanding-wireless-telephone-coverageareas
Freescale Semiconductor. (2009, February). Wireless Base Station Evolution. Networking and Multimedia Group, Document Number: WBSEVOLWP Rev. 1. Retrieved from http://www.nxp.com/assets/documents/da ta/en/white-papers/WBSEVOLWP.pdf
Hamid, M., & Kostanic, I. (2013). Path Loss Models for LTE and LTE-A Relay Stations. Universal Journal of Communications and Network, 1, 119-126. DOI: 10.13189/ujcn.2013.010401.
Hata, M. (1980, August). Empirical formula for propagation loss in land mobile radio services. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 29(3), 317-325. DOI: 10.1109/T-VT.1980.23859.
Hoy, J. (2015). Forensic Radio Survey Techniques for Cell Site Analysis. Chichester, West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons. Hussain, I. (2005). Understanding high availability of IP and MPLS networks, network and service outages. Cisco Press. Retrieved on December 5, 2016, from http://www.ciscopress.com/articles/article. asp?p=361409&seqNum=4
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). (n.d.a). Deterministic networking Networking (detnet) Working groupGroup. (ND). Internet Engineering Task Force. Retrieved on January 15, 2017, from https://datatracker.ietf.org/wg/detnet/documents
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). (n.d.b)., Signaling Transport (sigtran) Working Group. Retrieved on December 14, 2016, from https://datatracker.ietf.org/wg/sigtran/documents/
Lee, William W.C. Y. (1995). cell coverage for signal and traffic In S. S. Chapman Second Edition, Mobile Cellular Telecommunications: Analog and Digital Systems, 2nd. ed. (pp.103-156). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Lee, William W.C. Y. (2005). Cell coverage and antennas in Third Edition, Wireless and Cellular Telecommunications, 3rd. ed. (pp.349-424). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
MobileComm Professionals, Inc. (2015). Integrated approach to wireless engineering. Retrieved on February 2, 2017, from http://www.mcpsinc.com/downloads/Mobi leComm_Corporate_Profile.pdf
Minor, J. B. (2015). A method of validating cellular carrier records accuracy, U.S. Patent No. 9,113,307. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Retrieved on December 5, 2016, from http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph- Parser?Sect2=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&p= 1&u=/netahtml/PTO/searchbool. html&r=1&f=G&l=50&d=PALL&Ref Srch=yes&Query=PN/9113307
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). (2016, August 10). Wave behaviors. Science Mission Directorate. Retrieved on March 2, 2017, from http://science.nasa.gov/ems/03_behaviors
O’Malley, T.A. (2011, November). Using historical cell site analysis evidence in criminal trials, The United States Attorney’s Bulletin, 59(6), 16. Retrieved on December 5, 2016, from https://www.justice.gov/sites/default/files /usao/legacy/2011/11/30/usab5906.pdf
Okamura, Y., Ohmori, E., Kawano, T., & Fukuda, K. (1968, September-October). Field Strength and its Variability in VHF and UHF Land-Mobile Radio Service. Review of the Electrical Communication Laboratory, 16(9-10), 825-873.
Ouyang, Y. & Falla, M.H. (2010, March). A performance analysis for UMTS packet switched network based of multivariate KPIs., International Journal of Next- Generation Networks (IJNGN), 2(1), 80-94. Retrieved on December 5, 2016, from https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1003/1 003.5438.pdf
Riley v. California (2014), 134 S. Ct. 2473, 2484 (2014)
SWGDE (2017, February 21). Establishing confidence in digital forensic results by error mitigation analysis, Version 1.6, Retrieved on March 1, 2017, from https://www.swgde.org/documents/Curren t%20Documents/SWGDE%20Establishing %20Confidence%20in%20Digital%20Forensi c%20Results%20by%20Error%20Mitigation %20Analysis
Tart, M., Brodie, I., Gleed, N., & Matthews, J. (2012). Historic cell site analysis - Overview of principles and survey methodologies. Digital Investigation, 8(3-4), 185-193. Retrieved on December 5, 2016, from https://viewfromll2.files.wordpress.com/20 15/07/tart-et-al-2012.pdf
United Kingdom Accreditation Service. (2016, May). Accreditation for Forensic Cell Site Analysis – Pilot Update, ISO/IEC 17025. Retrieved on December 5, 2016, from https://www.ukas.com/news/isoiec-17025- accreditation-for-forensic-cell-site-analysispilot- update-may-2016/
United Kingdom Forensic Science Regulator. (2016, June 9). Codes of Practice and Conduct - Appendix: Digital Forensics - Cell Site Analysis. Retrieved on December 5, 2016, from https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/ system/uploads/attachment_data/file/528 197/FSR-C- 135_Cell_Site_Analysis_Issue_1.pdf
United States v. Valle (2014), No. 12 Cr. 847 (PGG), 2014 WL 2980256 (S.D.N.Y. Jun. 30, 2014)
Xu, X., Broustis, I., Ge, Z., Govindan, R., Mahimkar, A., Shankaranarayanan, N.K., & Wang, J. (2015). Magus: Minimizing Cellular Service Disruption during Network Upgrades, In Proceeding of the UCLA Engineering SIGCOMM 2015 Conference Presentation. doi:10.1145/2716281.2836106
Minor, John B.
"Forensic Cell Site Analysis: A Validation & Error Mitigation Methodology,"
Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law: Vol. 12
, Article 7.
Available at: https://commons.erau.edu/jdfsl/vol12/iss2/7