This paper is designed to expose vulnerabilities within the US electoral system, the use of cyberspace to exploit weaknesses within the information assurance strategies of the democratic and republican party organizations, and deficiencies within the social media communications and voting machine exploits. A brief history of discriminatory practices in voting rights and voting access will be set as the foundation for the argument that the system is vulnerable in the cyber age, and the need for reform at the local, state and national levels will be emphasized. The possibility of a foreign nation-state influencing the outcome of an election by using cyber warfare tactics should give us pause as this opens the US democracy to terrorist organizations who have the means to disrupt a US election via cyber-attack.


Drescher, D. (2017). Blockchain Basics: A Non-Technical Introduction in 25 Steps. Frankfurt, Germany: APress.

Filipov, D., & Paletta, D. (2017, July 8). Putin denies election hacking after Trump pressed him, Tillerson says. The Washington Post. Retrieved from www.washintonpost.com/world/heres-whats-at-stake

Glaser, A. (2016, July 27). Here's What We Know About Russia And the DNC Hack. Wired Magazine, 1-8.

Graham, D. A. (2015, August 6). What Does the Voting Rights Act Mean Today? The Atlantic.

Hampson, N. C. (2012). Hacktivism: A New Breed of Protest in a Networked World. Boston College International and Comparative Law Review,(6), 1-33.

Lapowsky, I. (2017, June 20). What Should (And Shouldn't) Worry you in That Voter Data Breach. Wired Magazine.

Murray, M. (2007). Hill Will Examine Voting Machines. Roll Call, Washington DC,1-3.

Mycoff, J. D., Wagner, M. W., & Wilson, D. C. (2009). The Empirical Effects of Voter-ID Laws: Present or Absent? PS: Political Science and Politics,42(1), 121-126.

Sainz, A. (2018, May 11). Ukraine computer involved in Tennessee elections attack. Associated Press.

Spanos, N. (2018, April 3). Bitcoin tech could become the future of voting. The Hill.

The Harvard Law Review Association. (2010). Citizens United V. FEC: Corporate Political Speech. Harvard Law Review,124(1), 75-82.

The JBHE Foundation, Inc. (1998-1999). Felony Disenfranchisement Removes 1.4 Million Black Men from the Voting Rolls. The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education,(22), 61-62.

US House of Representatives: Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence. (2018, May 11). Facebook Ads. Retrieved from https://democrats-intellegence.house.gov/facebook-ads/



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.