Pulverizing solid-state drives (SSDs) down to particles no larger than 2 mm is required by the United States National Security Agency (NSA) to ensure the highest level of data security, but commercial disintegrators that achieve this standard are large, heavy, costly, and often difficult to access globally. Here, we present a portable, inexpensive, and accessible method of pulverizing SSDs using a household blender and other readily available materials. We verify this approach by pulverizing SSDs with a variety of household blenders for fixed periods of time and sieve the resulting powder to ensure appropriate particle size. Among the 6 household blenders tested, sharp-blade blenders with high peak power (1,380 W) and high blade speed (28,000 RPM) properly disintegrate 2.5-inch SSDs in less than 20 min. This method is useful for pulverizing small numbers of SSDs that contain secret information when on-site conventional disintegrators are not available or practical.


Arakelyan, S., Lee, H., Jeong, Y., Babajanyan, A., Friedman, B., & Lee, K. (2017). Direct imaging of the SSD and USB memory drives heating by thermo-elastic optical indicator microscopy. Case Studies in Thermal Engineering, 10, 407–412.

Blyth, A., & Mellings, S. (2014). Managing End of Life Risk For Solid State Devices (SSD). Retrieved from http://www.btc.co.uk/newsletter/ADISA_SSD.pdf

Fu, J., Zhou, Q., Liu, J., Liu, W., Wang, T., Zhang, Q., & Jiang, G. (2008). High levels of heavy metals in rice (Oryza sativa L.) from a typical E-waste recycling area in southeast China and its potential risk to human health. Chemosphere, 71(7), 1269–1275. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.11.065

Garfinkel, S. L., & Shelat, A. (2003). Remembrance of data passed: A study of disk sanitization practices. IEEE Security and Privacy, 1(1), 17–27. https://doi.org/10.1109/MSECP.2003.1176992

Hopkins, B. J., & Riggle, K. A. (2020). Efficiently sanitizing a solid state drive (SSD). Retrieved from https://patentimages.storage.googleapis.com/18/68/44/cb61beb066f6cf/US10589286.pdf

Hubbard, D. W. (2010). How to Measure Anything: Finding the Value of “Intangibles” in Business (2nd ed.). Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Hughes, G., & Coughlin, T. (2006). Tutorial on Disk Drive Data Sanitization. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/229003088_Tutorial_on_Disk_Drive_Data_Sanitization

Hughes, G. F., Coughlin, T., & Commins, D. M. (2009). Disposal of disk and tape data by secure sanitization. IEEE Security and Privacy, 7(4), 29–34. https://doi.org/10.1109/MSP.2009.89

Kalpakjian, S., & Schmid, S. (2014). Manufacturing Engineering and Technology (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 07458: Pearson Education, Inc.

Kissel, R., Regenscheid, A., School, M., & Stine, K. (2014). Guidelines for Media Sanitization. NIST Special Publication 800-88. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/NIST.SP.800-88r1

Kumar, A., Neyaz, A., & Shashidhar, N. (2020). A Survey On Solid-State Drive Forensic Analysis Techniques. International Journal of Computer Science and Security, 14(2), 13–21.

Leung, A. O. W., Duzgoren-Aydin, N. S., Cheung, K. C., & Wong, M. H. (2008). Heavy metals concentrations of surface dust from e-waste recycling and its human health implications in southeast China. Environmental Science and Technology, 42(7), 2674–2680. https://doi.org/10.1021/es071873x

Murphy, A. M., Angelini, L. B., & Shwartz, J. (2018). Criminal prosecution for violating HIPAA: an emerging threat to health care professionals. Stat News. Retrieved from https://www.statnews.com/2018/07/02/criminal-prosecution-violating-hipaa/#:~:text=The penalties for criminal violations,to one year in prison.

OSHA. (2020). Occupational Safety and Health Standards Lead Exposure Policies. Retrieved from https://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=STANDARDS&p_id=10030

SEM. (2020). Model 2SSD Solid State Drive Disintegrator - ENTERPRISE. Retrieved October 19, 2020, from https://www.semshred.com/product/model-2ssd-solid-state-drive-disintegrator-enterprise/

Taflan, J. (2014). NSA/CSS Storage Device Sanitization Manual. Retrieved from https://www.nsa.gov/Portals/70/documents/resources/everyone/media-destruction/storage-device-declassification-manual.pdf

Wei, M., Grupp, L. M., Spada, F. E., & Swanson, S. (2011). Reliably Erasing Data from Flash-Based Solid State Drives. FAST, 11.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.