In the Southern Hemisphere (SH) polar region, satellite observations reveal a significant uppermesosphere cooling and a lower-thermosphere warming during warm ENSO events in December. An opposite pattern is observed in the tropical mesopause region. The observed upper-mesosphere cooling agrees with a climate model simulation. Analysis of the simulation suggests that enhanced planetary wave (PW) dissipation in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) high-latitude stratosphere during El Niño strengthens the Brewer–Dobson circulation and cools the equatorial stratosphere. This increases the magnitude of the SH stratosphere meridional temperature gradient and thus causes the anomalous stratospheric easterly zonal wind and early breakdown of the SH stratospheric polar vortex. The resulting perturbation to gravity wave (GW) filtering causes anomalous SH mesospheric eastward GW forcing and polar upwelling and cooling. In addition, constructive inference of ENSO and quasibiennial oscillation (QBO) could lead to stronger stratospheric easterly zonal wind anomalies at the SH high latitudes in November and December and early breakdown of the SH stratospheric polar vortex during warm ENSO events in the easterly QBO phase (defined by the equatorial zonal wind at ;25 hPa). This would in turn cause much more SH mesospheric eastward GW forcing and much colder polar temperatures, and hence it would induce an early onset time of SH summer polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs). The opposite mechanism occurs during cold ENSO events in the westerly QBO phase. This implies that ENSO together with QBO could significantly modulate the breakdown time of SH stratospheric polar vortex and the onset time of SH PMC.
Journal of Climate
American Meteorological Society
Grant or Award Name
National Natural Science Foundation of China Grants 41225017 and 41421063, National Basic Research Program of China Grant 2012CB825605, NSF Grants AGS-1115249 and AGS-1110199, NASA SABER Grant NNX15AD22G, National Science Foundation Grants AGS-1115249 and AGS-1110199
Scholarly Commons Citation
LI, T., Calvo, N., Yue, J., Russell, J., & Liu, A. (2016). Southern Hemisphere Summer Mesopause Responses to El Niño–Southern Oscillation. Journal of Climate, 29(). Retrieved from https://commons.erau.edu/publication/1062