Robert J. Lillis, University of California - BerkeleyFollow
Aroh Barjatya, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical UniversityFollow
David Mitchell, University of California - Berkeley
Luca Montabone, Space Sciences Institute
Nicholas Heavens, Space Sciences Institute
Tanya Harrison, Planet Federal Inc.
Cassie Stuurman, California Institute of Technology
Scott Guzewich, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr.
Scott England, Virginia Tech University
Paul Withers, Boston University
Mike Chaffin, University of Colorado, Boulder
Shannon Curry, University of California - Berkeley
Chi Ao, California Institute of Technology
Steven Matousek, California Institute of Technology
Nathan Barba, California Institute of Technology
Ryan Woodley, California Institute of Technology
Isaac Smith, York University
Gordon R. Osinski, University of Western Ontario
Armin Kleinböhl, California Institute of Technology
Leslie Tamppari, California Institute of Technology
Michael Mischna, California Institute of Technology
David Kass, California Institute of Technology
Michael Smith, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr.
Michael Wolff, Space Sciences Institute
Melinda Kahre, NASA Ames Research Center
Aymeric Spiga, Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique
François Forget, Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique
Bruce Cantor, Malin Space Science Systems
Justin Deighan, University of Colorado, Boulder
Amanda Brecht, NASA Ames Research Center
Stephen Bougher, University of Michigan - Ann Arbor
Christopher M. Fowler, University of California - Berkeley
David Andrews, Swedish Institute of Space Physics
Martin Patzold, Rheinisches Institut für Umweltforschung
Kerstin Peter, Rheinisches Institut für Umweltforschung
Silvia Tellmann, Rheinisches Institut für Umweltforschung
Mark Lester, University of Leicester
Beatriz Sánchez-Cano, University of Leicester
Janet Luhmann, University of California - Berkeley
François Leblanc, IPSL
Jasper Halekas, University of Iowa
David Brain, University of Colorado, Boulder
Xiaohua Fang, University of Colorado, Boulder
Jared Espley, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr.
Hermann Opgenoorth, University of Umea
Oleg Vaisberg, Space Research Institute
David Hinson, SETI Institute
Sami Asmar, California Institute of Technology
Joshua Vander Hook, California Institute of Technology
Ozgur Karatekin, Royal Belgian Observatory
Abhishek Tripathi, University of California - Berkeley

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Daytona Beach


Physical Sciences

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The Martian climate system has been revealed to rival the complexity of Earth's. Over the last 20 yr, a fragmented and incomplete picture has emerged of its structure and variability; we remain largely ignorant of many of the physical processes driving matter and energy flow between and within Mars' diverse climate domains. Mars Orbiters for Surface, Atmosphere, and Ionosphere Connections (MOSAIC) is a constellation of ten platforms focused on understanding these climate connections, with orbits and instruments tailored to observe the Martian climate system from three complementary perspectives. First, low-circular near-polar Sun-synchronous orbits (a large mothership and three smallsats spaced in local time) enable vertical profiling of wind, aerosols, water, and temperature, as well as mapping of surface and subsurface ice. Second, elliptical orbits sampling all of Mars' plasma regions enable multipoint measurements necessary to understand mass/energy transport and ion-driven escape, also enabling, with the polar orbiters, dense radio occultation coverage. Last, longitudinally spaced areostationary orbits enable synoptic views of the lower atmosphere necessary to understand global and mesoscale dynamics, global views of the hydrogen and oxygen exospheres, and upstream measurements of space weather conditions. MOSAIC will characterize climate system variability diurnally and seasonally, on meso-, regional, and global scales, targeting the shallow subsurface all the way out to the solar wind, making many first-of-their-kind measurements. Importantly, these measurements will also prepare for human exploration and habitation of Mars by providing water resource prospecting, operational forecasting of dust and radiation hazards, and ionospheric communication/positioning disruptions.

Publication Title

The Planetary Science Journal



American Astronomical Society