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Management & Technology

Document Type

Book Chapter

Publication/Presentation Date



Two components of academic excellence are continuity and predictability (Noddings, 1991; Pierantoni, 2017). Students need academic consistency, especially at the early elementary levels, for optimal learning (Hemmeter et al., 2006; Pierantoni, 2017). Continuity and predictability are interrupted by internal and external factors that are sometimes beyond the control of education stakeholders (Coleman & Collinge, 2006). The unpredictability of crises can negatively affect people and disrupt the education sector and peoples’ livelihoods. Education systems, families, students, and educators struggle to maintain optimal learning environments because of the 2020 pandemic (Coleman & Collinge, 2006). Learning poverty means children are unable to read and understand simple text by age 10 (The World Bank, 2021a), and the situation is likely to continue with ramifications on educators who strive to maintain work-life balance while focusing on the national and international goals of education.

Publication Title

The Refractive Thinker: An Anthology of Doctoral Writers


The Refractive Thinker® Press