Submitting Campus



College of Aviation

Document Type


Publication/Presentation Date

Winter 2022


Remotely piloted aircraft command-and-control latency could play a significant role during beyond-line-of-sight engagements in future conflicts. As the Air Force prepares to use these systems and artificial intelligence in within-visual-range combat, it must understand the effects of latency, or missing sensor data, during a dogfight. Research indicates technology-based latency influences the engagement outcome geometry similar to a slow decision-making cycle foundational to the understanding of Boyd’s Observe, Orient, Decide, Act (OODA) Loop. This study adds depth to the theory illustrating technology-induced latency has a similar effect as slow human decision making resulting in lower performance. Therefore, when combined with the human human decision-making process, latency compounds the effect, resulting in significantly lower performance.

Publication Title

Air & Space Operations Review


Air University

Additional Information

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