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Daytona Beach


Mechanical Engineering

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Publication/Presentation Date



The RemoteLink effort supports the U.S. Army's objective for developing and fielding next generation hybrid-electric combat vehicles. It is a distributed soldierin- the-Ioop and hardware-in-the-Ioop environment with a 6-DOF motion base for operator realism, a full-scale combat hybrid electric power system, and an operational context provided by OneSAF. The driver/gunner crewstations rest on one of two 6-DOF motion bases at the U.S. Army TARDEC Simulation Laboratory (TSL). The hybrid power system is located 2,450 miles away at the TARDEC Power and Energy System Integration Laboratory (P&E SIL). The primary technical challenge in the RemoteLink is to operate both laboratories together in real time, coupled over the Internet, to generate a realistic power system duty cycle.

A topology has been chosen such that the laboratories have real hardware interacting with simulated components at both locations to guarantee local closed loop stability. This layout is robust to Internet communication failures and ensures the long distance network delay does not enter the local feedback loops. The TSL states and P&E SIL states will diverge due to (1) significant communications delays and (2) unavoidable differences between the TSL's powersystem simulation and the P&E SIL's real hardware-inthe- loop power system. Tightly coupled, bi-directional interactions exist among the various distributed simulations and software- and hardware-in-the-Ioop components representing the driver, gunner, vehicle, and power system. These interactions necessitate additional adjustment to ensure that the respective states at the TSL and P&E SIL sites converge. This is called state convergence and ensures the dominant energetic states of both laboratories remain closely matched in real time. State convergence must be performed at both locations to achieve bi-directional, real-time interaction like that found on a real vehicle. The result is a distributed control system architecture with Internet communications in the state convergence feedback loop.

The Internet communication channel is a primary source of uncertainty that impacts the overall state convergence performance and stability. Multiple control schemes were developed and tested in simulation. This paper presents robust control techniques that compensate for asynchronous Internet communication delays during closed loop operation of the TSL and P&E SIL sites. The subsequent soldier- and hardware-in-the-Ioop experiments were performed using a combination of nonlinear Sliding-mode and linear PID control laws to achieve state convergence at both locations. The control system development, performance, and duty cycle results are presented in this paper.


New Orleans, LA, USA

Paper Number

SAE Technical Paper 2006-01-3077

Number of Pages


Additional Information

Dr. Compere was not affiliated with Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University at the time this paper was published.