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The original investigation of Lamb (1932, x349) for the effect of viscosity on monochromatic surface waves is extended to account for second-order Stokes surface waves on deep water in the presence of surface tension. This extension is used to evaluate interfacial impedance for Stokes waves under the assumption that the waves are growing and hence the surface waves are unsteady. Thus, the previous investigation of Sajjadi et al. (2014) is further explored in that (i) the surface wave is unsteady and nonlinear, and (ii) the effect of the water viscosity, which affects surface stresses, is taken into account. The determination of energy-transfer parameter, from wind to waves, are calculated through a turbulence closure model but it is shown the contribution due to turbulent shear flow is some 20% lower than that obtained previously. A derivation leading to an expression for the closed streamlines (Kelvin cat-eyes), which arise in the vicinity of the critical height, is found for unsteady surface waves. From this expression it is deduced that as waves grow or decay, the cats-eye are no longer symmetrical. Also investigated is the energy transfer from wind to short Stokes waves through the viscous Reynolds stresses in the immediate neighborhood of the water surface. It is shown that the resonance between the Tollmien-Schlichting waves for a given turbulent wind velocity profile and the free-surface Stokes waves give rise to an additional contribution to the growth of nonlinear surface waves.

Publication Title

Advances and Applications in Fluid Dynamics



Pushpa Publishing House