Journal of Aviation/Aerospace Education & Research





Key words

Culture, Crew Resource Management, Aviation, Multinational Cockpit


The globalization of the aviation industry necessitated many international airlines to recruit cockpit and cabin crews from different countries with different national cultures. As airlines are becoming more multicultural, cultural issues, as well as language and communication issues among flight crew, become more and more important. The cultural differences among the cockpit crew seem to become a big challenge for Crew Resource Management (CRM). CRM is defined as the effective utilization and management of all resources, including information, equipment and people to achieve safe and efficient flight operations. Many studies have shown that cultural differences among pilots may strongly affect the basic concepts and fundamentals of CRM. The aim of this study was to investigate cultural differences among pilots flying in the Turkish aviation industry. In addition, it aimed to investigate the differences in CRM perception of pilots and their attitude toward flying in a multinational cockpit. A survey was conducted to 375 Turkish and foreign pilots flying in Turkish airline companies. The findings revealed that there were significant cultural differences between foreign and Turkish pilot flying in the Turkish aviation industry. In addition, significant sub-cultural differences were found among pilots with different training backgrounds and with different titles. Moreover, significant differences in CRM perception of the pilots and in pilots’ attitude towards a multinational cockpit were identified. These findings may provide a guideline to airlines with multi-cultural flight crew for implementing customized CRM programs to minimize the effect of these issues on safety. It may also help airlines to be aware of the differences in pilots’ attitudes toward a multinational cockpit and operational challenges that cockpit crew may experience due to language diversity in the cockpit.

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