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Humanities & Communication

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This action research observes instructional strategies and appropriateness of the strategies that pre-service teachers have applied during their training based on the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) training model. Participants include 14 pre-service teachers who were enrolled in a Distance Education training course in Taiwan. During the course, pre-service teachers were trained to develop teaching skills based on the TPACK training model and applied their skills in video-conferencing teaching which involved 14 American students who were learning Mandarin Chinese as a Foreign Language (CFL) in an intermediate level course in the United States. Data were collected via screen recordings of online teaching, pre-service teachers’ lesson plans, and instructional PowerPoint presentations. The results revealed in the content analysis that the CFL pre-service teachers applied four instructional strategies including using body language, graphic and pictures, animations, and text-based input to enhance understanding of the content. These instructional strategies were relatively simple and easy to use in the online teaching environment; however, overusing multimedia may cause instructional obstacles. This study suggests that when training pre-service teachers to use technologies, it is more important to train pre-service teachers to develop abilities that link technology tools with instructional goals.

Publication Title

Journal of Educational Technology Development and Exchange


Society of International Chinese in Educational Technology

Grant or Award Name

Science Council of Taiwan grant NSC 101-2410-H-017-012